Make a difference

Little things count as to whether your house burns or not

With the hot weather coming in a few short weeks it is time to check over the house and our surrounds, including our gardens (if we have them), to ensure they are at low risk of catching alight.

In view of the need for helping residents to be at lower risk from bushfires, back in March 2019, a group of us with the support of Senator Linda Reynolds and Member for Forrest MP, Nola Marino, decided to conduct an event that would help residents in bushfire-prone areas making themselves and their properties safer.

On Sunday 1 May 2019 we had a morning Firewise Excursion. We were delighted that Mrs Nola Marino was able to attend and contribute to the discussion. We started with a scene-setting exercise of exploring the differing facets of bushfire in the South West: its high frequency, how to prevent embers from entering into roof spaces, etc. We used a series of seven posters each of which highlighted an aspect of the problem.  Here is a link to the Gardens0fFire_series Poster exhibition which drew on the rather sombre book by Robert Kenny who had his house destroyed in the Victorian Bushfires of 2009.

The Excursion was named as being “Firewise“. This is derived from a program of this name developed in the US by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).  House and garden design that aims to reduce bushfire risk is crucial as is re-engineering existing houses and gardens to protect against ember attack and, occasionally, direct flame contact.

The Firewise concept was developed out of the research work of wildfire scientist, Dr Jack Cohen, who studied the aftermath of many wildfires and in particular the way a house will burn down. Contrary to popular belief it is not a great wall of flame, rather it is the embers getting into nooks and crannies around a house, including vents, and smouldering then erupting into flames and burning the house down from the inside. He stresses the need for defensible space near the house which is kept at very low fuel levels to ensure embers are not created there, there is nothing to burn and there is little chance of direct flame attack.

The scene setting exercise was useful as it stimulated a lively discussion about the many different aspect of what can be done by residents and fire authorities to make everyone safer.

We had short summary papers which contain online links to further information.  These are: Firewise excursion Intro and Firewise excursion Parkland.

We then had a break in the weather and were able to see Yarri Park as an example of Parkland Cleared.  See the “before” image, below.

Revegetation_YP_14Oct16_IMG_4781

Yarri Park.The large trees are a eucalypt, Eucalyptus patens, or Yarri which grow only in favoured spots in the South West – high rainfall and deep soils – such as here in Balingup. This is the “before picture” showing high buildup of understory which when dried out becomes a bushfire risk. 

Here is the Park after a full week of activity to clean out much of the understory, make the Park easier to walk through and to maintain as well as being at a lower risk of bushfire to surrounding neighbours.

YarriPark_After_15Nov16

The “after picture” showing Parkland Cleared result.

We then headed out to an attractive property which used to be Birdwood Park near Balingup townsite which is a good example of a property being made to be at low risk of bushfire attack. Considerable quantities of vegetation were removed and any trees near the house were usually deciduous or were at the low end of the flammability scale, eg Indian Hawthorn, Raphiolepis indica, and Coprosma or Mirror Bush.

Then the next front came through and we dashed back to the Fire Shed or headed home.

Some more ideas about Firewise_Property_Design_Sep19 are contained in this document. There are links to further material in this to follow up should you want to know more.

Even removing the layer of mulch that you spread carefully in that garden bed next to the house could make you safer. It would mean that embers would fall on bare ground instead of potential fuel. A few small changes like this could make the difference.

Waterwise Verge Problems in Bushfire areas

Last week I saw promotion of an initiative to implement waterwise verges, waterwise verge – best practice guidelines throughout the Perth Metropolitan area including in those areas now recognised as being bushfire prone. Unfortunately, this program is likely to have unintended consequences for large parts of the metropolitan area in that it will create a real and ongoing threat of increased fuel load near homes, thus leading to a greater chance of bushfire attack*.

Pears_Kirup_2Jun16_IMG_4041

South Western Highway at Kirup. Whilst not in the metropolitan area the image shows an example of a verge that is both waterwise and does not constitute a fire hazard. It is firewise!  It  is quite bare apart from the row of deciduous, decorative pears which give shade in summer, colour in autumn and let the sun through in winter. They are also covered in blossom in spring. 

 

Paradoxically this initiative was promoted in the same week as the release of the Report of the Special Inquiry into the January 2016 Waroona Fire (the Ferguson Report waroona_fires_2016_-_volume_1_-_report_final) which in its findings places a strong emphasis on fuel management.

In this Waterwise program incentives will be offered to householders who will be subsidised to change their verges by a combination of Council and Water Corporation funding waterwise-verge-information-sheet. Thus we see one arm of the State Government, the Water Corporation, offering incentives to change verges to increase the fuel load, i.e. create a fire hazard and another, the Public Sector Commission, in the Ferguson Report, advocating fuel management processes to reduce the fire risk.

For some time I have been concerned about the effects that bushfires may have on communities in Bushfire Prone Areas including in the Metropolitan area. These areas have now been mapped and these BPA maps were released a few months back. They are disturbing in that they show much of the South West Land Division including the outer areas of the Perth Metropolitan area being at risk of bushfire attack.  Even areas near the City are shown to be at bushfire risk. I have friends in Glengariff Drive, Floreat who have Bold Park at the rear of their property and they are classified as being in a BPA. See the link for the BPA maps. Developing a verge as described in the Water Corp initiative would add to their fire hazard. http://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/regulationandcompliance/bushfireproneareas/Pages/default.aspx

Thus the release of this verge initiative is concerning for those areas that are quite clearly in areas of bushfire risk. Here is the link to the Page.

http://www.watercorporation.com.au/home/business/saving-water/water-efficiency-programs/waterwise-council-program/waterwise-verges

The program recommends that in order to save water, householders remove their street lawn and replace it with waterwise plants – the preference is for native plants. These plants are to be kept below a height of 70 cm and preferably are to be non-irrigated.

This treatment of a verge will result in a strip of flammable plant material that is likely to catch on fire and carry a fire toward the house.  Embers can be carried hundreds of metres or even more from the main fire. The use of mulch is recommended and its type is not specified – apart from being described as needing to be of coarse consistency. If the mulch is shredded plant material it will act as fuel in a bushfire and add to the risk caused by using fairly dry native plants.

Water conservation is essential, but if water is to be saved, verges in Bushfire Prone Areas, would be best covered, at least partially, by non organic materials including some paving. A small bed of succulents, eg pig face could be added or a small clump of drought-tolerant plants such as geraniums. A shady deciduous tree, such as a Chinese Tallow or Chinese Pistachio, even Prunus  or decorative pears (which are quite drought tolerant once established) would be preferable than planting eucalypts or any conifer in BPA. Keeping the verge clear of vegetation apart from some well placed deciduous trees is a viable option. The image of the pears in Kirup is a good example of a practical solution showing a verge at low risk of fire and waterwise.

The select-the-right-tree document referred to by Water Corp includes eucalypts and wattles which are not suitable not only because they are flammable but because they have undesirable habits such as weediness or they are brittle and likely to drop branches or fall over entirely. Flinders Range Wattle is a definite weed and flammable as well. In fact any of the Eastern States wattles are poor subjects for the South West gardens and verges (including the metropolitan area). Balingup, where I Iive, has too many of these trees and they are a real nuisance as they can become large and dangerous. It can cost thousands of dollars to remove them as friends and I have found to our cost.

I have both academic, gardening and first hand experience of many of the trees listed. For some years I did a gardening spot on ABC Local Radio SW. At times I have learnt the hard way when I thought a type of tree was attractive until I discovered it increased bushfire risk, had bad habits and it cost a fortune to remove it.

*There has been an extra section included in the document Waterwise verge – Best Practice Guidelines,  Page 6 Additional Section 1.2.8 Bushfire Prone Areas. See waterwise-verge-best-practice-guidelines1